Would you like to go to the fireworks display?

How about going to see the assistant and fireworks?

In Japan, it is regarded as a summer night scenic poem . Some municipalities are calling fireworks of large-scale fireworks “fireworks display”. The time of the convention is concentrated in July and August.

■Fireworks(Hanabi)

Fireworks (fireworks) are wrappings of gunpowder and metal powder wrapped in a fire, directing the fire, directing the sound of combustion / rupture, color and shape of sparks. We use flame color reaction of metal to color sparks and can produce spark of various shades depending on kind of metal to be mixed. In general it is common to use outdoors. The part of the explosive that generates light, color and smoke of fireworks is called a star [1] . In many cases you enjoy the color and shape of sparks that splash when explosive / burning explosive, but others like rocket fireworks, snake fireworks, parachute fireworks, enjoying other than burning gunpowder. In addition to the fireworks display, it is used to inform the hosting of events etc., and also in place of a celebration . In English, it is called fireworks . In recent years there are rare cases where “Hanabi” is used as a letter.

■History in Japan

It is not certain when, where, and what occasion the first use of fireworks was done in Japan.

As an old record , in the May 5, 1447 ( March 21, Bunkasa 4) 1447 diary of the Muromachi era Public Housing Mani-ekiro Tachibana ” Konnichihon (Concours Hospital Pref.)”, In Kura Kosakuin There is an article saying that “Terjin” performed the “wind stream thing” which is thought to be a fireworks in the precincts after the incident. There, a frame is made with bamboo, and a fire expresses a shape such as “thin, bellflower, sennen flower, water mill” by fire, things such as fire coming and going through rope, and “fire” “Running”, and holding the fire in his hands, things that fly like “meteor” in the air were demonstrated. Hisatomo praised “Hakushiro Taniya” and gives rewards.

In this era Ashikaga Yoshimitsu was restored by Ashikaga Ryouichi which had been ceased after the death of Yoshimitsu Ashikaga , and fireworks were also brought from the continent.

At least during the Warring States period, fireworks for viewing together with guns and gunpowder are said to have been transmitted [11] . It is said that fireworks will be produced in Japan soon, but there are also many records of fireworks by foreigners such as missionaries and “Tango” since then.

A record that the Portuguese Jesuit missionary used fireworks at the current cathedral located in Usuki , Oita Prefecture on April 14, 1888 ( Tensono- ken 10th March 2010 ) (“The Jesuit Japan Annual Report” ” Floy Japan History “), Otomo Sorin made use of fireworks as a grand public event to increase the holy weekly ritual to Christianity . In the resurrection from St. Saturday evening to the next morning festival , a mechanism by which pyrotechnics comes out from the three castle towers is a matrix of three thousand lanterns ( night church highlighting the story of the church and Japan) I added luxury. Furthermore, many fireworks were “in a variety of shapes in the air ” so that people stopped and saw fireworks. And in the middle of the night the church, the courtyard and the plaza became a crowd with no room for a cone.

In addition, Masamune Date is the Yonezawa Castle of the castle and saw the fireworks by “Daito” on the night of August 17, 1589 ( July 7, 2005 ) (“Sadayama Public History Record”, “Date Tensho Diary , Etc.), an article that Tokugawa Ieyasu saw fireworks made by foreigners in Sunpu castle in 1613 (” Sampu political record “) etc. (However, the article of Masamune is based on compilation material around Genroku , Ieyasu ‘s articles and similar issues are pointed out). The original fireworks that were introduced to Japan were of a shape that sparks blew out of the cylinder [11] .

It is thought that fireworks were independently made in Japan even though we learned firework technology by foreigners, but at the beginning it is not well understood. In 1585, there is a theory that Minamikawa Yamashiro Mamoru and Mr. Satake made fireworks in the battle ceremony in Tochigi City , Tochigi Prefecture , but we used the gunpowder that was valuable at the time in the middle of the war for such things There is also a claim that it can not be.

” Firecrackers ” that looks like ” firecrackers ” on February 18, 1981 (Tensho 9th New Year’s Day ) , which is visible as “Tadashi Nobunaga ” written by Koichi Ota , is a fireworks firecracker, There is a theory that thinks that firecrackers (a kind of fireworks) were produced in Azuchi castle , but this is done at least from the Kamakura period as one of the events of the New Year burning bamboo and making sound, It can not be promptly decided whether it was a fireworks using.

However, around this time mass production of gunpowder has come to be done from the demand for guns and it is probably that Japan’s original fireworks were also being produced.

According to books such as “Sunpu Masataka”, “Miyanaka Kyokutei”, “Takekuni Hen Years Collection”, it was Tokugawa Ieyasu who saw the first fireworks leading to modern fireworks. In August 1613, when British John Searl came to Sunpu Castle as an official messenger with the king James I ‘s national letter, he said that he showed fireworks. The Mikawa district centering on Okazaki, the birthplace of Tokugawa, is the land that was officially permitted to manufacture and store explosives only by the Tokugawa shogunate during the Edo period. With such history, fireworks have spread and developed in the Mikawa district centered on Okazaki from long ago, leaving the name of Mikawa fireworks all over Japan. Even in its remnant or present, the surrounding areas of Mikawa and the distant area are accumulating a lot of manufacturing and wholesalers of fireworks nationwide.

Edo period
In the Edo era , when the battle went out, a gunpowder shop specializing in fireworks appeared. In 1648 the shogunate touched the prohibition of fireworks outside the Sumidagawa River , fireworks are said to have been popular since then. It is thought that those at that time were toy fireworks. In ‘ Waka Three Talented Diagram ‘ published by around 1712 (by Terashima Ryo-sai , Encyclopedia Enclosed in Edo Period’s Encyclopedia of Encyclopedia ), mice fireworks, Fireworks Fireworks [13] etc. are introduced.

Fireworks ban was issued also in the first year of Keiyun (1648), Hirofumi 5 years (1665), Hirofumi 10 years (1670), fireworks are not done at all in the Edo period, gradually to the province It moved. It seems that the launch accident has occurred, and that a ban was issued repeatedly.

The oldest fireworks display dealer in Japan existing in 2013 is the sectarian fireworks locker in Tokyo (then Edo ), and in 1659 the first Yayoi sold toy fireworks.

Locksmith’s first Yayoi comes from Yamatokuno Shinohara ( Yoshino gun , later Nara prefecture Gojo city ) and said that he was good at making fireworks from childhood. In 1659, Yayubei who appeared in Edo sold toy fireworks with stars in the reed. Yaubei then continued his research, set up a store in Yokoyama Town in both countries, and began to raid “locker” as a trademark for generations.

After that, he advanced research on large fireworks, and in 1717 launched a fireworks in accordance with the water god festival. In 1733, famine was hit by the famine , mainly in the Kinai district, cholera raged in Edo Amidst the dark society where many dead people were issued, General Shogun Yosu prayed for the deceased memories of the deceased and devastated demons, and the water god of the two countries Okawa (Sumidagawa) A festival was held, and about 20 fireworks were displayed according to it, which is said to have become the origin of fireworks of the Sumidagawa river opening [11] .

Tamaya is the representative of the fireworks of Edo alongside the locker. Tamaya is the creation of the sixth generation locker, Kiyoshichi divided the goodwill in 1810, renamed it Ichibei, and started to set up a store in Yogawa Town, Hirokoji, both countries.

In Edo which came to the era of two big fireworks of lockers and Tamaya in this way, the riverside of the two countries came to bear Tamaya upstream across the bridge and the locker at the downstream. “Mai Maey” “Ka ー ー ー ー ー ー ー” a cry was created [2] . Looking at the Ukiyo-e print of the time, many fireworks of Yamaya were drawn, and there were many fireworks of “Yamaya”, and “There is no key or anything other than a bridge, a ball or a ball ‘s voice” It is thought that the popularity of Yamaya was overwhelming the locker, also from the fact that the song called “Tamaki and it is nice to go and locker” is still left. However , on May 16, 1843 ( Tenpo April 17, 2002 ), there was a misfire from Tamaya, burning not only shops but half town (about 1,500 tsubo) townscape. At that time the misfire was declared as a felony and by chance the disposition was done as it happened to be the eve of Shogun’s visit to Toshogu on the occasion of the Shogun’s housekeeper Toshogu Shrine, Tamaya became a fortress (forfeiture of property), and Ichibei became Edo Oshii (expulsion) It was a family name disappeared in only one generation.

At that time, the fireworks of fireworks specialists like key lockers were called town fireworks. In addition, Daimyo and others ordered explosive gunpowder craftsmen to compete and fireworks at the Sumidagawa river. These fireworks are called samurai fireworks . Particularly, the fireworks of the three Ogatsu clan , the Kishu clan , the Mito clan , the Tokugawa Gogo family who were not regulated the manufacture of explosives was called the Ozaki fireworks, and it was popular among Edo towners . In addition, the samurai fireworks of the Date house of Sendai also reflects the luxurious clan style since Masamune Date , and gained popularity of Edo town people as a fireworks of the Sendai River Bank , the onlookers gathered for a big deal, the railing of the Many Bridge near the clan trees breaks It has occurred until the accident. The samurai fireworks evolved things like signal bullets used in the war, called fireworks fireworks , so to speak as a fireworks in the vertical direction so to speak, so to speak, with a focus on fireworks that enjoy color and shape, so to speak Different direction from specialized town fireworks. The modern Japanese fireworks technology is one that incorporates the difference in this direction.

According to Mr. Teruhiko Muto ( 1921-2002 ), a founder of the Japan Fireworks Foundation Association and a large number of books on fireworks, fireworks fireworks are said to have been developed in 1751 . It is thought that the fireworks before that were fireworks where smoke and flames spew out.

In the World War II period, Lockya canceled fireworks production by 13 generations Amano Tamiya, and as of 2013 it became a specialized shooter.

Regarding fireworks, there are still many records in Edo, but fireworks were not produced in other areas. Especially in Kyushu where there was trade with foreign countries, Nagano , Aichi etc. Fireworks were made from the Edo period. In particular, Mikawa country Okazaki district (near Okazaki City, Aichi Prefecture) said that Tokugawa Ieyasu was from the hometown, the regulations on gunpowder are gentle, and the townspeople competed from the Edo period to produce fireworks. It is said that it is this remnant that there are many toy fireworks wholesalers around Okazaki as of 2013. Other major domestic fireworks production areas in Japan are Nagano, Niigata , Akita and Ibaraki prefectures , and there are many regions that are related to the Tokugawa family.

Since the Meiji Period
In the Meiji era, many chemicals such as potassium chlorate , aluminum , magnesium , strontium carbonate and barium nitrate were imported from overseas, new colors were added to the fireworks which were expressed only by the intensity of orange, which is said to be the charcoal color until then Not only did the brightness change greatly [11] . Importation of these substances began in 1879 to 1887 in stages, and the shape of fireworks in Japan changed drastically. Fireworks made by the previous technology may be divided into Japanese fire , and later ones may be called western fire .

Vibrant fireworks with variegated colors were born with new chemicals, but also in the Meiji era when considerable accidents occurred due to lack of knowledge on chemicals. Particularly potassium chlorate becomes unstable when mixed with other acidic chemicals and has a property of increasing the risk of explosion even with a slight impact and treats it like a nitrate used as an oxidizing agent in the Wagyu Age This resulted in a serious accident.

It was a celebration event announced on February 11, 1889 on the empire of the Japan Imperial Empire , as a record of a wide variety of Western-style fire with a variety of colors, which was launched from Nibaibashi .

Until then, there were no licenses or restrictions on fireworks production, but in 1910 it became a permission system. Many previous local fireworks were manufactured by hobbyists such as farmers , but after this, specialists of fireworks will be promoted from the necessity to make full use of chemical knowledge.

Metal powders such as magnesium and aluminum as luminescent agents appeared in the Taisho era, vibrant blooming of the big wheels became possible by the night sky, and a red explosion mixed potassium chlorate with chicken stone was invented and a large pronunciation Fireworks with effect were completed. It is also the Taisho period that the famous fireworks such as Aoki Yumi and Hirooka Kotaro appeared.

It is a fireworks that has successfully developed technologies in this way, but the world situation where the warfare expands in the Showa era will have a stagnation period. Although fireworks manufacture was not banned but high tax was imposed instead, banquet fighter fireworks were launched at first, fireworks for memorial fireworks welcoming the spirits, memorial service and victory prayers fireworks were raised. However, due to the expansion of the war, the fireworks festival of the Sumidagawa river was canceled in 1937 . Meanwhile, fireworks manufacturers have been manufacturing smoking tubes and burning tubes (reproducing the sound of incendiary bombs ) used in air defense exercises.

After the defeat the fireworks were raised at the Suwa shrine in Nagano City in September 1945, but in the following October the gunpowder production was forbidden by the Allied Forces General Headquarters (GHQ) . However, on July 4, 1946, Japanese companies raised the American Independence Festival’s fireworks at the US military bases in various places [11] , as the first fireworks display after the war on August 10, 1946 in Gifu city on the bank of the Nagara River (To be later nationwide fireworks festival), the 14th National Fire Fire Competition (later to be the Tsuchiura National Fireworks Games) held in Tsuchiura City on September 29th and 30th, the New Constitution of 1947 In commemoration of the enforcement, the Imperial Palace square (which was the last fireworks launch in the Imperial Palace) was held.

Tenacious persuasion of Japanese fireworks manufacturers allowed GHQ to consume inventory fireworks in 1948, sponsored by both fireworks unionists, sponsored by the Yomiuri Shimbun , sponsored by Maruyamaya Kodaka smoked fire shop alone, the two countries’ river open Fireworks display revived on August 1, 1948. At this time there were only 600 shots allowed for launch, but there were 700,000 audiences in the flowers of the great wings of peaceful times (“Ryugaku Kaikyo chronology”).

After the defeat, the Japanese fireworks were exported abroad, including toys fireworks, but as of 2013, imports from China are more, and exports are drastically decreasing. Many fireworks vendors are micro and small and medium enterprises rooted in the local community as of 2013 and take a hereditary system that conveys technology from the parent’s hand to the child’s hand.

■Traditional fireworks

Mainly introduce fireworks with history. Some of them also serve as one of the regional exchanges, such as performing regional performances like hand fireworks.

Matsushita Ryutsin Fire (Ibaraki Prefecture Tsukuba Mirai City )
Known aliases are also called puppets work fireworks . In 1603, Matsushita Shinpasa, who became the lord of Zhang , went on a campaign such as a victory celebration and it is said to be the beginning. In the Edo era, I came to dedicate to Atago Shrine praying for relief from fire and rich fruit.
Mr. Zhang Matsushita Tsunagi Fire is an unusual event combining a puppet show of ethnic arts and fireworks, three columns of about 10 m in height are made up, a rope is drawn around three main ropes, a tower for manipulating the doll We are going to set up a dummy figure with fireworks while manipulating the doll to match the shakuhachi.
The premiereing exercises are Genpei Momiaki , Momotaro , Anno Kiyohime Hidakagawa, etc, and the accompanying musicians are also various other than Matsushita, depending on foreign subjects such as shrine maiden dance, reversal, third number.
Dolls are to use bunches of straw for each performance by foreign theme. In addition, in the preparation of fireworks explosives, the 1807 document “Kanhaku Fire Book” is present when? ] And the manufacturing method according to it is being protected.
Takaoka Tsunagari Fire (Tsukuba Mirai City, Ibaraki Prefecture)
“Tsunami fire” combines puppets and work fireworks, manipulates the rope tightly wrapped around in the air, squeezes the doll according to the shakuhachi, says another name as puppet work fireworks . Its history has been old since Keicho , and it is said that village will suffer unfortunately if you stop it.
There is no reliable record on the origins of this rope, but on the day of Atago Shrine festival in Keicho year, looking at the nest building of the black spider and the red spider in the air, gaining implication from its behavior, making a doll with straw , He said that he began to perform in the air.
Later it began to attach torches and lanterns to this puppet doll, studying the manufacturing technology of fireworks along with the transfer of explosives, dedicating it to the doll attached to the dolls, and praying for safety in the village. At the moment [ when? ] Tradition is being protected by a retrogroup organized only by the eldest son living in the Takaoka area.
Chichibu Ryusei fireworks ( Chichibu city, Saitama Prefecture)
Shimoyoshida, which is said to have started in the Tensho year, handmade fireworks dedicated to the great festival of the Ru Shrine autumn. A rocket firework with a length of about 15 m is launched to a height of 300 – 500 m.
Mikawa handwriting fireworks ( Toyohashi City , Aichi Prefecture · Higashi Mikawa )
It is a fireworks using a barrel that cuts out a blue bamboo section with a diameter of about 10 cm and a length of 70 – 80 cm, and wraps around the circumference with hemp rope. On the day before dedicating to the shrine, I clap the gunpowder inside, and on the day of dedication, the young couple in the flank and ignite. Then the flame sometimes blows beyond 10 meters and is brave.
Hand force male smoke (Nagumori, Gifu Prefecture)
Praying strategies in May, September and November every year is a fireworks dedicated to hand force Life (Takashi no Mikoto, handsome man life). There are kinds such as hand fireworks attached to shrines, missions, waterfalls fireworks and so on.
Meteor ( Maibara-shi , Shiga prefecture, Omi others)
During the battle of Sekigahara , it is said that Takashi Ishida told Samayama that he was in contact with a fireworks firefighter to Today, from Sekigahara to Honjin.
What is used in meteor is Japan’s traditional black powder, but formulation is different for each village.
Shinoda’s fireworks ( Omihachiman City, Shiga prefecture)
It is a firework which originated in the middle Edo period. Add the paste after adding the nitrate and alum , paint a picture or letter on the board, attach it to the tower and let the fire go.
Naru Atago Shrine donation fireworks (Okayama prefecture Nagaha)
It is a fireworks display based on the fact that Yoshinori Yoshinori, a lord lord, hosted dedicated fireworks for the recommendation of Atago Shrine in 1704 .

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